Conducted by the Western European Union prior to To ensure this, we need real leadership and the political will to deliver change. I thought that it wasn't worth creating a negative commotion, which could prevent them supporting something that otherwise they would have supported. Retrieved 17 April
It is ironic that, as we saw in the Brexit referendum , the postwar generation that benefited so much from European integration is now driving an explosion of Eurosceptic nationalism. Young people, a majority of whom deeply value their European citizenship, too often face barriers to full political participation. Nationalists tell us that the nation state is best placed to deal with common challenges, but their argument fails the test of reason and ignores the nature of the trans-national threats we face.
Climate change, international terrorism and the negative consequences of globalisation cannot be tackled by individual countries acting independently.
If the European Union of today did not exist, we would have to create it. The European single market, a British initiative, is something all Europeans can be proud of. But the prosperity that open markets and free trade has brought must be shared more widely.
Far too many Europeans face unemployment, low wages and a lifetime of social exclusion. Millions are being left behind and political leaders have been too slow to acknowledge this.
Deep reform of the eurozone is needed, to put in place a system of governance that will drive investment and create jobs.
The timidity with which reforms have been implemented since the economic crash have undermined our common currency. In a fast-moving, digital, global economy, Europe must be able to adapt.
To ensure this, we need real leadership and the political will to deliver change. Increased support for authoritarian and Eurosceptic far-right parties, combined with dramatic falls in democratic engagement, should worry us all.
Our political institutions must be streamlined and transparency in public institutions increased. But capitalism can be tamed so that it benefits everyone, not just the few. It is important that Europe once again becomes a community of values. The temptation to restrict freedoms and pull up the drawbridge to the rest of the world is real, but building walls will not solve the challenge of mass migratory flows caused by poverty and war.
Limiting the freedoms we enjoy will only hand victory to those who seek to cause us harm. But this defence must go hand in hand with much more effective cooperation, external border controls and active measures to deter extremism.
We can be proud that the European Union has legislated to tackle discrimination across our continent. Here too, however, the battle for equality and enhanced civil rights must progress. The multi-speed Europe thesis envisions an alternative type of European integration, where the EU countries that want a more integrated EU can accelerate their own integration, whereas other countries may go at a slower pace or cease further integration altogether.
Specific current examples include the Eurozone and the Schengen Area , which not all members have elected to join. The European Union EU is not legally de jure a federation, although various academics have argued that it contains some federal characteristics. Here is the view of Professor R. Daniel Kelemen of Rutgers University on how various scholars approach the issue:.
Unencumbered by the prejudice that the EU is sui generis and incomparable, federalism scholars now regularly treat the EU as a case in their comparative studies Friedman-Goldstein, ; Fillippov, Ordeshook, Shevtsova, ; Roden, ; Bednar, For the purposes of the present analysis, the EU has the necessary minimal attributes of a federal system and crucially the EU is riven with many of the same tensions that afflict federal systems.
According to Joseph H. Weiler , "Europe has charted its own brand of constitutional federalism". According to Thomas Risse and Tanja A. Börzel, "The EU only lacks two significant features of a federation. First, the Member States remain the 'masters' of the treaties, i. Second, the EU lacks a real 'tax and spend' capacity, in other words, there is no fiscal federalism.
Other academics have argued that the EU is unlikely to evolve into a unified federal state. Kelemen together with Andy Tarrant has taken this view himself, arguing that limits placed on the bureaucratic capacity of the European institutions — such as the relatively small size of the European Commission — form a barrier to the creation of a federal European state.
One important fact is that treaties must be agreed by all member states even if a particular treaty has support among the vast majority of the population of the European Union. Member states may also want legally binding guarantees that a particular treaty will not affect a nation's position on certain issues.
Use of the word 'federal' is itself the cause of some disagreement. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing found opposition from the United Kingdom towards including the word "federal" in the European Constitution , and hence replaced the word with "Community".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about real world federalisation of Europe. For hypothetical proposals, see United States of Europe. For the political doctrine of European cultural integration, see Europeanism. For the process of integration in Europe generally, see European integration. Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice. Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership.
Foreign relations of EU Member States. The Durability of EU Federalism? Archived from the original PDF on 20 January State of the European Union , Vol. Eine Vision wird Wirklichkeit. Leicester University Press, , pp. Europe has charted its own brand of constitutional federalism.
Public Economics and Social Choice. Archived from the original PDF on 19 August Daniel; Tarrant, Andy I knew the word 'federal' was ill-perceived by the British and a few others. I thought that it wasn't worth creating a negative commotion, which could prevent them supporting something that otherwise they would have supported. This section may contain lists of external links , quotations or related pages discouraged by Wikipedia's Manual of Style.
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